Part A – 50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension, Jawaban, Pembahasan

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Hari ini saya akan mengulas tentang Contoh Soal TOEFL.

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Part A – 50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension, Jawaban, Pembahasan

Part A - 50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension, Jawaban, Pembahasan
Part A – 50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension, Jawaban, Pembahasan

Reading Comprehension Passage 1

Robert Moog was an American inventor who developed the Moog Synthesizer. It was one of the first synthesizers to gain widespread use as a musical instrument. Moog’s synthesizers were an important pa Line of musical innovation in rock and jazz music in the 1960s and 1970s. Robert Arthur Moog was born in Queens, a borough of New York City 75 years ago. He became fascinated with electronics as a teenager, particularly an early electronic music instrument called the theremin. Moog studied physic and electrical engineering at Queens College and Columbia University, both in New York City and later received a Ph.D. in engineering physic Cornel University in Ithaca, New York. In 1954, while still an undergraduate student, Moog formed his own company to sell theremins and theremin kits.

Soon after, Moog began working on a keyboard instrument that could replicate the sound of any musical instrument electronically. Working with American composer Herbert Deutsch, Moog introduced the prototype Moog Synthesizer at a convention in 1964. The device represented a significant advance over previous electronic synthesizer because of its use of new semiconductor technology, which made it smaller and considerably cheaper than earlier machines. The Moog, as it was known, was soon in demand by musician all over the world.

In 1964, Moog began a collaboration with American composer and organist Walter Carlos (now Wendy Carlos), who released the bestselling electronic music album Switched-On Bach in 1968. Rock groups such as the Beatles and Yes and jazz musicians such as Herbie Hancock and Chick Corea began incorporating Moog Synthesizer into their recordings, a trend that increased when the company introduced the compact and portable Minimoog in 1970. A Moog Synthesizer was also prominently featured on the soundtrack to the movie A Clockwork Orange in 1971. Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2008

1. The word “prominently” in paragraph 3 can easily be replaced by …

(A) significantly
(B) perfectly
(C) accurately
(D) excellently

Jawab: (A) significantly
Keyword: featured on
Pembahasan:
• prominently = significantly = menonjol
• perfectly = sempurna
• accurately = akurat
• excellently = baik

2. The passage describes theremin as a/an …

(A) prototype of Moog Synthesizer
(B) initial electronic music instrument
(C) musical instrument to replicate the sound
(D) instrument of electronic tool

Jawab: (B) initial electronic music instrument
Keyword: instrument called theremin
Pembahasan: Initial electronic music instrument. Dapat dilihat pada bacaan ‘particularly on early electronic music instrument called theremin.

3. The pronoun “it” paragraph 2 refers to…

(A) electronic synthesizer
(B) a keyboard instrument
(C) prototype of Moog Synthesizer
(D) new semiconductor technology

Jawab: (C) prototype of Moog Synthesizer
Keyword: intoduced yhe prototype
Pembahasan: Prototype of Moog Synthesizer. Jika dilihat dari bacaan pada paragraf 3, Moog memperkenalkan sebuah prototype Moog Synthesizer.

4. According to the passage, all of the following are true about The Moog, EXCEPT…

(A) it was invented by Robert Moog
(B) it was first introduced in 1964
(C) it initiated new technology which was smaller and cheaper than previous
(D) it was the first synthesizer in the world

Jawab: (D) it was the first synthesizer in the world
Keyword: made it smaller and considerably than
Pembahasan: it was the first synthesizer In the world. Karena dalam bacaan ke-18-19 dituliskan bahwa sebelumnya sudah diciptakan mesin synthesizer “which made it smaller and considerably cheaper than earlier machine”.

5. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses…

(A) collaboration between The Moog and other musicians
(B) the description of compact and portable Mini Moog
(C) the improvement of Moog Synthesizer
(D) trend in the music industry about synthesizer

Jawab: (C) the improvement of Moog Synthesizer
Keyword : Moo Sythesizer was also prominently
Pembahasan: Yang paling mungkin dibahas dalam paragraf selanjutnya adalah the improvement of Moog synthesizer.

6. The main idea of paragraph three is …

(A) the Moog’s collaboration in music field
(B) the Moog in the movie soundtrack
(C) the introduction of Minimoog
(D) the collaboration of The Moog with music groups

Jawab: (A) the Moog’s collaboration in music field
Keyword: Moog began a collaboration
Pembahasan: the Moog’s collaboration in music field. Dalam bacaan dituliskan bahwa Moog mulai berkolaborasi dengan berbagai musisi dalam berbagai genre musik.

Reading Comprehension Passage 2

Throughout history, people have been the victim of pickpockets. Today, pick pocketing is the one of the most rapidly increasing crimes. Pickpockets are increasing in number and developing better methods to Line practice their skill. Approximately one million Americans lose money to pickpockets every year, and none is really safe from a skilled pickpockets. His victims, or ‘marks’ as they are called, can be rich or poor, young or old.

During the eighteenth century, pickpockets were hanged in England, large crowds of people would gather watch the hanging, which was supposed to be a warning to other pickpockets. However, in time the practice was discontinued. The reason: while people were attentively watching the hanging of a pickpockets, other pickpockets skillfully stole the money of spectators.

Police official say that the most efficient pickpockets come from South America. Many of these expert pickpockets are trained in special school called ‘Jingle Bell Schools’. A pickpocket’s graduate from J. B. S when he is able to steal a wallet from a dresses dummy (mannequin) that has bells inside its pockets.
Even the most well dressed, respectable person may be a pickpocket. Some of the favorite places of pickpockets are banks, airports, racetrack, supermarkets, elevators, and train and bus stations. Oftentimes a pickpocket will work with another pickpockets as his partner. Another kind of pickpockets works outside or inside bars and specialize in stealing from women is called a ‘purse snatcher’.

To avoid being the victim of a pickpocket, it’s important to be very cautious and alert when in the midst of large gathering of the people.

7. The best title for the passage would be…

(A) Pickpockets are well dressed
(B) Jingle Bell Schools
(C) Pickpockets
(D) The hanging of pickpockets

Jawab: (C) Pickpockets
Keyword: have been the victim of pickcpockets
Pembahasan: Keseluruhan bacaan di atas berisi tentang pickpocket (pencopet).

8. The hanging of pickpockets were not continued because …

(A) they were large crowd of people
(B) it was against humanity
(C) the police were not at the hanging
(D) it was not effective to stop pickpocketing

Jawab: (D) it was not effective to stop pickpocketing
Keyword: other pickpockets skillfully stole the money
Pembahasan: Pada paragraf 2 dijelaskan bahwa ketika para pencopet digantung, pencopet yang lain beraksi di antara kerumunan penonton.

9. Pick pocketing is … crime.

(A) an old
(B) a modern
(C) a temporary
(D) a contemporary

Jawab: (A) an old
Keyword: during the 18th century
Pembahasan: Pencopetan merupakan kejahatan lama sejak abad ke-18.

10. The passage mentions that pickpockets steal in/from the following, except

(A) crowded places
(B) the shops
(C) drunkards
(D) women

Jawab: (C) drunkards
Keyword: his victims can be rich or poor, young or old
Pembahasan: Berdasarkan bacaan, drunkard tidak disebutkan.

11. South Americans pickpockets are the most efficient ones because …

(A) they are well-trained
(B) they are handsome
(C) they are well-dressed
(D) they are respectable

Jawab: (A) they are well-trained
Keyword: the most efficient pickpockets come from South America
Pembahasan: Di Amerika Sealtan terdapat sekolah untuk para pencopet.

Reading Comprehension Passage 3

The cause of tooth decay is acid, which is produced by bacteria in the mouth. The acid removes minerals from tooth enamel, allowing tooth decay to begin; the saliva in your mouth encourages remineralization and Line neutralizes the acid. The rate at which bacteria in the mouth produce acid depends on the amount of plaque on the teeth, the composition of the microbial flora, and whether the bacteria of the plaque have been “primed” by frequent exposure to sugar. To keep your teeth healthy, a regular dental hygiene program should be followed.

Removing plaque with a toothbrush and dental floss temporarily reduces the numbers of bacteria in the mouth and thus reduces tooth decay. It also makes the surfaces of the teeth more accessible, enabling saliva to neutralize acid and remineralise lesions. If fluoride is present in drinking water when teeth are forming, some fluoride is incorporated into the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to attack by acid. Fluoride toothpaste seems to act in another way, by promoting the remineralization of early carious lesions.

In addition to a regular dental hygiene program, a good way to keep your teeth healthy is to reduce your intake of sweet food. The least cavity- causing way to eat sweets is to have them with meals and not between. The number of times you eat sweets rather than the total amount determines how much harmful acid the bacteria in your saliva produce. But the amount of sweets influences the quality of your saliva. Avoid, if you can, sticky sweets that stay in your mouth a long time. Also try to brush and floss your teeth after eating sugary foods. Even rinsing your mouth with water is effective. Whenever possible, eat foods with fiber, such as raw carrot sticks, apples, celery sticks, etc., that scrape off plaque, acting as a toothbrush. Cavities can be greatly reduced if these rules are followed when eating sweets.

12. What does this passage mainly discuss?

(A) Good nutrition
(B) Food with fiber
(C) Ways to keep your teeth healthy
(D) Fluoridization and cavities

Jawab: (C) Ways to keep your teeth healthy
Keyword: to keep your teeth healthy
Pembahasan: Bacaan tersebut membahas tentang cara menjaga gigi Anda sehat (Ways to keep your teeth healthy).

13. According to the passage, all of the following statements about plaque are true EXCEPT…

(A) it consists of acid producing bacteria
(B) it is not affected by eating sweets
(C) it can be removed from teeth by brushing and flossing
(D) it reduces the positive effect of saliva

Jawab: (B) It is not affected by eating sweets
Keyword: have been primed by frequent exposure to sugar
Pembahasan: Pernyataan tentang plak berdasarkan bacaan tersebut kecuali: “It is not affected by eating sweets.”

14. We can infer from the passage that one benefit of fluoride to healthy teeth is…

(A) It strengthens tooth enamel
(B) it stimulates saliva production
(C) it makes teeth whiter
(D) It Is a replacement for brushing and flossing in dental care

Jawab: (A) it strengthens tooth enamel
Keyword: making them more resistant to attarck by add
Pembahasan: Kita bisa menyimpulkan satu manfaat dari fluoride untuk gigi, yaitu memperkuat enamel gigi (It strengthens tooth enamel.)

15. The word “it” in paragraph 2 refers to …

(A) dental floss
(B) bacteria
(C) removal of plaque
(D) plaque

Jawab: (C) removal of plaque
Keyword: removing plaque
Pembahasan: “it” paragraf ke 2 menunjukkan removal of plaque (menghilangkan plak).

16. What can be concluded from the passage about sweets?

(A) All sweets should be avoided.
(B) Sweets should be eaten with care.
(C) It is better to eat sweets a little at a time throughout the day.
(D) Sticky sweets are less harmful than other sweets.

Jawab: (B) Sweets should be eaten with care.
Keyword: Avoid, if you can, sticky sweets
Pembahasan: Simpulan tentang “sweets” (permen) adalah sweets should be eaten with care. (Sweets harus dimakan dengan hati-hati).

17. The word “scrape off” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to…

(A) repel
(B) rub together with
(C) remove
(D) dissolve

Jawab: (C) remove
Keyword: acting as a toothbrush
Pembahasan: Kata “scrape off” yang terdekat dalam arti untuk remove.
• repel = mengusir
• rub together with = gosok bersama-sama dengan
• remove = menghapus
• dissolve = larut

18. According to the passage, the value of eating foods with fiber is that …

(A) they contain Vitamin A
(B) they are less expensive than a toothbrush
(C) they are able to remove the plaque from your teeth
(D) they contain no sugar

Jawab: (C) they are able to remove the plaque from your teeth
Keyword: that scrape off plaque
Pembahasan: Menurut bagian ini, nilai makan makanan dengan serat adalah bahwa “they are able to remove the plaque from your teeth” (mereka mampu menghilangkan plak dari gigi Anda).

19. The author of the passage states that the amount of acid produced by the bacteria in your saliva increases …

(A) with the amount of sweets you eat
(B) with the number of times you eat sweets
(C) if you eat sweets with your meals
(D) if you eat sticky sweets

Jawab: (B) with the number of times you eat sweets
Keyword: the amount of sweets influences the quality of your saliva
Pembahasan: Jumlah asam yang diproduksi oleh bakteri dalam air liur akan meningkat seiring dengan jumlah permen yang dimakan. (with the number of times you eat sweets.)

Reading Comprehension Passage 4

Until recently,mostAmericanentrepreneursweremen. Discrimination against women in business, the demands of caring for families, and lack of business training had kept the number of women entrepreneurs Line small. Now, however, businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion in annual revenues, and this figure is likely to continue rising throughout the 1990s. As Carolyn Doppelt Gray, an official of the Small Business Administration, has noted, “The 1970s was the decade of women entering management, and the 1980s turned out to be the decade of the woman entrepreneur”.

What are some of the factors behind this trend? For one thing, as more women earn advanced degrees in business and enter the corporate world, they are finding obstacles. Women are still excluded from most executive suites. Charlotte Taylor, a management consultant, had noted, “In the 1970s women believed if they got an MBA and worked hard they could become chairman of the board. Now they’ve found out that isn’t going to happen, so they go out on their own”.

In the past, most women entrepreneurs worked in “women’s” fields: cosmetics and clothing, for example. But this is changing. Consider ASK Computer Systems, a $22-million-a-year computer software business. It was founded in 1973 by Sandra Kurtzig, who was then a housewife with degrees in math and engineering. When Kurtzig founded the business, her first product was software that let weekly newspapers keep tabs on their newspaper carriers and her office was a bedroom at home, with a shoebox under the bed to hold the company’s cash. After she succeeded with the newspaper software system, she hired several bright computer-science graduates to develop additional programs. When these were marketed and sold, ASK began to grow. It now has 200 employees, and Sandra Kurtzig owns $66.9 million of stock.

Of course, many women who start their own businesses fail, just as men often do. They still face hurdles in the business world, especially problems in raising money; the banking and finance world is still dominated by men, and old attitudes die hard. Most businesses owned by women are still quite small. But the situation is changing; there are likely to be many more Sandra Kurtzigs in the years ahead.

20. What is the main idea of this passage?

(A) Women today are better educated than in the past, making them more attractive to the business world.
(B) The computer is especially lucrative for women today.
(C) Women are better at small businesses than men are.
(D) Women today are opening more businesses of their own.

Jawab: (D) Women today are opening more businesses of their own.
Keyword: businesses owned by women account for more than $40 billion
Pembahasan: Gagasan utama bacaan tersebut adalah Wanita masa kini makin banyak yang membuka usaha sendiri.

21. The word “excluded” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to…

(A) not permitted in
(B) often invited to
(C) decorators of
(D) charged admission to

Jawab: (A) not permitted in
Keyword: form most executive suites
Pembahasan: Kata “excluded” = dikecualikan”pada paragraf ke 2 adalah memiliki arti terdekat dengan not permitted in = tidak diizinkan dalam.
• often invited to = sering diundang untuk.
• decorators of = dekorator dari.
• charged admission to = dibebankan masuk ke.

22. All of the following were mentioned in the passage as detriments to women in the business world EXCEPT…

(A) women were required to stay at home with their families
(B) women lacked ability to work in business
(C) women faced discrimination in business
(D) women were not trained in business

Jawab: (B) women lacked ability to work in business
Keyword: more women earn advanced degrees in business
Pembahasan: Berlkut Ini adalah yang disebutkan dalam bacaan sebagai kekurangan wanita di dunia bisnis KECUALI wanita tidak memiliki  kemampuan untuk bekerja dalam bisnis (women lacked ability to work in business).

23. In paragraph 2, “that” refers to …

(A) a woman becomes chairman of the board
(B) women working hard
(C) women achieving advanced degrees
(D) women believing that business is a place for them

Jawab: (A) a woman becomes chairman of the board
Keyword: they become chairman of the board
Pembahasan: Kata “that” pada paragraf ke 2 mengacu padaa woman becomes chairman of the board (wanita yang menjadi ketua dewan).

24. According to the passage, Charlotte Taylor believes that women in the 1970s…

(A) were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management
(B) were still more interested in education than business opportunities
(C) had fewer obstacles in business than they do today
(D) were unable to work hard enough to succeed in business

Jawab: (A) were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management
Keyword: women believed if they got an MBA
Pembahasan: Menurut bacaan, Charlotte Taylor percaya bahwa perempuan pada 1970-an kurang yakin tentang peluang mereka dalam manajemen bisnis (were unrealistic about their opportunities in business management).

25. The author mentions the “shoebox under the bed” in the third paragraph in order to…

(A) show the frugality of women in business
(B) show the resourcefulness of Sandra Kurtzig
(C) point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited
(D) suggest that the company needed to expand

Jawab: (C) point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited
Keyword: to hold the company’s cash
Pembahasan: Penulis menyebutkan “shoebox under the bed” dalam paragraf ketiga untuk menunjukkan bahwa pada awalnya sumberdaya keuangan dari bisnis Sandra Kurtzig’s terbatas (point out that initially the financial resources of Sandra Kurtzig’s business were limited).

26. In the third paragraph, the word “this” refers to…

(A) women becoming entrepreneurs
(B) women buying cosmetics and clothing
(C) women working in “women’s fields”
(D) women staying at home

Jawab: (C) women working in “women’s fields”
Keyword: women entrepreneurs worked in women’s fields
Pembahasan: Kata “this” pada paragraf ke 3 mengacu pada perempuan yang bekerja di “bidang perempuan” (women working in “women’s fields”).

27. The expression “keep tabs on” in the third paragraph is closest in meaning to …

(A) recognize the appearance of
(B) keep records of
(C) provide transportation for
(D) pay the salaries of

Jawab: (B) keep records of
Keyword: let weekly newspapers
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “keep tabs on = mengawasi” pada paragraf ke 3 memiliki arti terdekat dengan keep records of (menyimpan rekaman).
• recognize the appearance of = mengakui tampilan
• provide transportation for = menyediakan transportasi untuk
• pay the salaries of = membayar gaji

28. The word “hurdles” in the last paragraph can be best replaced by…

(A) fences
(B) obstacles
(C) questions
(D) small groups

Jawab: (B) obstacles
Keyword: especially problem in raising money
Pembahasan: Kata “hurdles = rintangan” dalam paragraf terakhir dapat digantikan dengan kata obstacles (hambatan).
• fences = pagar
• obstacles = hambatan
• questions = pertanyaan
• small groups = kelompok kecil

29. It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes that businesses operated by women are small because …

(A) women prefer a small intimate setting
(B) women can’t deal with money
(C) women are not able to borrow money easily
(D) many women fail at large businesses

Jawab: (C) women are not able to borrow money easily
Keyword: especially problem in raising money
Pembahasan: Bisnis yang dioperasikan oleh wanita masih kecil karena mereka tidak dapat meminjam uang dengan mudah (women are not able to borrow money easily).

30. The author’s attitude about the future of women in business is …

(A) skeptical
(B) optimistic
(C) frustrated
(D) negative

Jawab: (B) optimistic
Keyword: but the situation is changing
Pembahasan: Sikap penulis tentang masa depan wanita dalamm bisnis adalah optimis (optimistic)

50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension Lengkap dengan Kunci Jawaban dan Pembahasan Part A

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