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Table of Contents
50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension Lengkap dengan Kunci Jawaban dan Pembahasan – Part B
Reading Comprehension Passage 5
This rapid transcontinental settlement and these new urban industrial circumstances of the last half of the 19“’ century were accomp
anied by the development of a national literature of great abundance and variety. Line New themes, new forms, new subjects, new regions, new authors, new audiences all emerged in the literature of this half century. As a result, at the onset of World War I, the spirit and substance of American literature had evolved remarkably, just as its center of production had shifted from Boston to New York In the late 1880s and the sources of its energy to Chicago and the Midwest. No longer was it produced, at
least in its popular forms, in the main by solemn, typically moralistic men from New England and the Old South; no longer were polite, well-dressed, grammatically correct, middle-class young people the only central characters in its narratives no longer were these narratives to be set in exotic places and remote times; no longer, indeed, were fiction, poetry, drama, and formal history the chief acceptable forms of literary expression; no longer, finally, was literature read primarily by young, middle class women. In sum, American literature in these
years fulfilled in considerable measure the condition Walt Whitman called for inl867 in describing Leaves of Grass: It treats, he said of his own major work, each state and region as peers “and expands from them, and includes the world … connecting an American citizen with the citizens of all nations.” At the same time, these years saw the emergence of what has been designated “the literature of argument,” powerful works in sociology, philosophy, psychology, many of them impelled by the spirit of exposur
e and reform. Just as America learned to play a role in this half century as an autonomous international political, economic, and military power, so did its literature establish itself as a producer of major works.
31. The main idea of this passage is …
(A) that the new American literature was less provincial than the old
(B) that World War I caused a dramatic change in America
(C) that centers of culture shifted from East to West
(D) that most people were wary of the new literature
Jawab: (A) that the new American literature was less provincial
Keyword: were accompanied by the development of a national literature
Pembahasan: Gagasan utama dari bacaan ini adalah sastra Amerika baru kurang kedaerahan dari yang lawas (that the new American literature was less provincial than the old).
32. It can be inferred from lines 1-3 that the previous passage probably discussed …
(A) the Importance of tradition to writers
(B) new developments in industrialization and population shifts
(C) the fashions and values of 19th century America
(D) the limitations of American literature to this time
Jawab: (B) new developments In Industrialization and population shifts
Keyword: the rapid transcontinental settlement and these new urban Industrial
Pembahasan: Yang dapat disimpulkan dari kalimat 1 adalah perkembangan pergeseran industrialisasl dan populasi yang baru (new developments in industrialization and population shifts).
33. The word “evolved” is closest in meaning to…
(A) became famous
(B) turned back
Jawab: (D) changed
Keyword: had shifted from
Pembahasan: evolved – berevolusi became famous = menjadi terkenal turned back = berbalik diminished = berkurang changed = berubah
34. The word “it” refers to…
(A) the population
(B) the energy
(C) American literature
(D) the manufacturing
Jawab: (C) American literature Keyword: the spirit and substance of American literature
Keyword: the spirit and substance of American literature
Pembahasan: Kata “it” mengacu pada sastra Amerika (American literature).
35. The word “exotic” is closest in meaning to…
Jawab : (B) unusual Keyword Pembahasan
Keyword: exotic places and remote times
Pembahasan: Kata “exotic” = eksotis arti yang terdekat unusual = tidak biasa
• urban = perkotaan
• unusual = tidak biasa
• well-known = terkenal
• old-fashioned = kuno
36. The author uses the word “indeed” for what purpose?
(A) to emphasize the contrast he is making
(B) for variety in a lengthy paragraph
(C) to wind down his argument
(D) to show a favorable attitude to these forms of literature
Jawab: (A) to emphasize the contrast he is making
Keyword: no longer
Pembahasan: Penulis menggunakan kata ” indeed = benar” untuk menekankan kontras (to emphasize the contrast he is making).
37. The phrase “these years” in line 17 refers to …
(B) the 1900s
(C) the early 1800s
(D) the present
Jawab: (A) 1850-1900
Keyword: in late 1880s
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “these years = bertahun-tahun” dalam mengacu pada 1850-1900.
38. It can be inferred from the passage that Walt Whitman…
(A) disliked urban life
(B) was disapproving of the new literature
(C) wrote Leaves of Grass
(D) was an international diplomat
Jawab: (C) wrote Leaves of Grass Keyword: in describing Leaves of Grass
Keyword: in describing Leaves of Grass
Pembahasan: Hal yang dapat disimpulkan tentang Walt Whitman adalah menulis Leaves of Grass.
39. All of the following can be inferred from the passage about the new literature EXCEPT…
(A) it was not highly regarded Internationally
(B) it introduced new american themes, characters, and settings
(D) it spoke to the issue of reform and change
Jawab: (A) it was not highly regarded internationally
Keyword: 50 did its literature establish itself
Pembahasan: Simpulan di atas adalah benar tentang “new literature” literatur baru kecuali sangat tidak dihargai secara internasional (It was not highly regarded internationally).
40. This passage would probably be read in which of the following academic courses?
(A) European history
(B) American literature
(C) Current events
(D) International affairs
Jawab: (B) American literature
Keyword: substance of American literature
Pembahasan: Bagian ini mungkin akan dibaca di mana di kelas sastra Amerika.
Reading Comprehension Passage 6
Scientists do not yet thoroughly understand just how the body of an individual becomes sensitive to a substance that is harmless or even wholesome for the average person. Milk, wheat, and egg, for example. Line rank among the most healthful and widely used foods. Yet these foods can cause persons sensitive to them to suffer greatly. At first, the body of the individual is not harmed by coming into contact with the substance. After a varying interval of time, usually longer than a few weeks, the body becomes sensitive to it, and an allergy has begun to develop. Sometimes it’s hard to figure out if you have a food allergy since it can show up so many different ways.
Your symptoms could be caused by many other problems. You may have rashes, hives, joint pains mimicking arthritis, headaches, irritability, or depression. The most common food allergies are to milk, eggs, seafood, wheat, nuts, seeds, chocolate, oranges, and tomatoes. Many of these allergies will not develop if these foods are not fed to an infant until her or his intestines mature at around seven months.
Breast milk also tends to be protective. Migraines can be set off by foods containing tyramine, phenethylamine, monosodium glutamate, or sodium nitrate. Common foods which contain these are chocolate, aged cheeses, sour cream, red wine, pickled herring, chicken livers, avocados, ripe bananas, cured meats, many Oriental and prepared foods (read the labels!). Some people have been successful in treating their migraines with supplements of B-vitamins, particularly B6 and niacin.
Children who are hyperactive may benefit from eliminating food additives, especially colorings, and foods high in salicylates from their diets. A few of these are almonds, green peppers, peaches, tea, grapes. This is the diet made popular by Benjamin Feingold, who has written the book Why your Child is 30 Hyperactive. Other researchers have had mixed results when testing whether the diet is effective.
41. The topic of this passage is…
(A) reactions to foods
(B) food and nutrition
(C) infants and allergies
(D) a good diet
Jawab: (A) reactions to foods
Keyword: an individual becomes sensitive to a substance
Pembahasan: Topik dari bacaan tersebut adalah reaksi terhadap makan (reactios of foods).
42. According to the passage, the difficulty in diagnosing allergies to foods is due to …
(A) the vast number of different foods we eat
(B) lack of a proper treatment plan
(C) the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems
(D) the use of the prepared formula to feed babies
Jawab: (C) the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems
Keyword: it can show up so many different ways
Pembahasan: Menurut bagian ini, kesutitan dalam mendiagnosis alergi terhadap makanan adalah karena kemiripan gejala alergi dengan masalah lain (the similarity of symptoms of the allergy to other problems).
43. The word “symptoms” in line 8 is closest in meaning to …
Jawab: (A) indications
Keyword: could be caused by many other problems
• symptoms = gejala
• indications = indikasi
• diet = diet
• diagnosis = diagnosis
• prescriptions = resep
44. The phrase “set off” is closest to the meaning …
Jawab: (D) triggered
Keyword: by foods containing
Pembahasan: Ungkapan “set off” adalah paling mirip dengan arti triggered = dipicu
• relieved = lega
• identified= diidentifikasi
• avoided= dihindari
45. What can be inferred about babies from this passage?
(A) They can eat almost anything.
(B) They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants.
(C) They gain little benefit from being breastfed.
(D)They may become hyperactive if fed solid food too early.
Jawab: (B) They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants.
Keyword: many of these allergies will not develop. If these foods are not fed to an infant until
Pembahasan: Simpulan tentang bayi adalah mereka harus memiliki pola makanan yang dibatasi dengan hati-hati (They should have a carefully restricted diet as infants).
46. The word “hyperactive” is closest in meaning to …
(A) overly active
(B) unusually low activity
Jawab: (A) overly active
Keyword: children who are hyperactive
Pembahasan: Kata “hiperaktif” mirip dengan overly active (terlalu aktif)
• overly active = terlalu aktif
• unusually low activity = aktivitas luar biasa rendah
• excited = bersemangat
• inquisitive = ingin tahu
47. The author states that the reason that infants need to avoid certain foods related to allergies has to do with the infants…
(A) lack of teeth
(B) poor metabolism
(C) underdeveloped intestinal tract
(D) inability to swallow solid foods
Jawab: (C) underdeveloped intestinal tract
Keyword: until her or his intestines mature
Pembahasan: Dinyatakan dalam bacaan bahwa alasan bahwa bayi perlu menghindari makanan tertentu yang berhubungan dengan alergi karena saluran pencernaan yang belum berkembang baik.
Reading Comprehension Passage 7
A curfew is a specific type of law instituted by those In power. It is one that requires citizens to be off the streets and out of public places at specified hours.
There are active curfew laws in some communities in the United States today; these laws are currently functioning. The existing curfew laws generally refer to minors. These laws usually indicate the hour when the children must be off the streets and out of public unless they are with their parents.
Curfew laws have a long tradition. William of Normandy introduced the custom to the British Isles after his invasion there in 1066. At curfew time, a bell was rung. The pealing of the bell indicated that citizens should extinguish any burning fires and clear the streets for the night. The word curfew actually developed at this time from the Norman French expression couvre-feu or cover the fire.
48. The word “minors” in paragraph 2 could be best replaced by …
Jawab: (A) children
Keyword: generally refer to minors
Pembahasan: Minors = belum dewasa
• children = anak-anak
• communities = komunitas
• public = publik
• citizens = warga
49. Look at the word “pealing” in paragraph 3. This word is closest in meaning to which of the following?
Jawab: (A) ringing
Keyword: a bell was rung
Pembahasan: Pealing = bunyi
• ringing = dering
• uncovering = mengungkap
• breaking = pemecahan
• burning = pembakaran
50. Citizens should extinguish any burning fires, (paragraph 3). Word extinguish is closest in meaning to…
(A) put in
(B) put on
(C) put off
(D) put out
Jawab: (D) put out
Keyword: should extinguish any burning fire
Pembahasan: Extinguish = padam
• put in =memasukkan
• put on = memakai
• put off =menunda
• put out = memadamkan
50 Contoh Soal TOEFL Reading Comprehension Lengkap dengan Kunci Jawaban dan Pembahasan Part B
Best Score TOEFL 600+
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