Absolute Phrase – Pengertian dan Contoh Kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris

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Pengertian dan Contoh Kalimat Absolute Phrase dalam Bahasa Inggris

Absolute Phrase - Pengertian dan Contoh Kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris
Absolute Phrase – Pengertian dan Contoh Kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris

Video English Phrases

50 COMMON ENGLISH PHRASES

Absolute Phrase


1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Absolute Phrase?

Absolute phrases adalah frasa yang memodifikasi klausa independen sepenuhnya (kalimat lengkap); bukan hanya satu kata.

Ini umumnya menggabungkan kata benda dan participle, sehingga bisa sesingkat dua kata, atau kadang-kadang memiliki modifikator dan objek lain juga.

Absolute phrases are not full sentences on their own, but they can add very important details to sentences that make them more informative or relevant.


2. Contoh Absolute Phrase

Tidak seperti pengubah normal yang hanya memodifikasi kata dalam kalimat, Absolute phrases mengubah seluruh kalimat.
Simak contoh di bawah ini:

  • Gina waited for her friends to arrive, muffins baking in the oven.
  • Muffins baking in the oven, Gina waited for her friends to arrive.
  • Her muffins freshly baked, Gina waited for her friends to arrive.
  • Gina waited for her friends to arrive, her muffins freshly baked and ready.

What’s more, absolute phrases are not full sentences on their own; they only modify full sentences. As you can also see, they are NOT connected to the full sentence by a conjunction (like and).


3. Parts of Absolute Phrases

Absolute phrases selalu memiliki kata benda/ Noun (sebagai subjek), tetapi tidak memiliki kata kerja/ Verb berhingga (kata kerja yang bekerja dengan subjek untuk membuat kalimat lengkap). Biasanya, mereka juga memiliki participle, plus modifikator dan objek lain.

a. Nouns

A noun is a person, place, thing, object or idea. A sentence’s subject is pretty much always a noun. In an absolute phrase, the noun is what is doing the present or past participle.

Simak contoh di bawah ini:

  • Muffins baking
  • Fingers typing
  • Clothes folded
  • Muffins baked

The noun in an absolute phrase is very often (but not always) accompanied by a pronoun, like this:

  • Her muffins baking
  • Their fingers typing
  • His clothes folded
  • My muffins baked
b. Participles

An absolute phrase almost always has a past or present participle. Adding “ed” to the end of regular verbs makes the past participle; adding “ing” to the end of all verbs makes the present participle. Here’s a chart to make this easier to understand:

c. Objects

An object is a word affected by the verb or preposition in a sentence. Objects are usually nouns or pronouns that answer questions like “who,” “what,” “where,” and “when?”

Simak contoh di bawah ini:

  • Gina baked muffins. What did Gina bake?
  • Gina baked at home. Where did she bake?
  • Gina baked for her friends. Who did she bake them for?
  • Gina baked this morning. When did she bake them?

Objek-objek menjawab pertanyaan, memberi kita lebih banyak rincian tentang apa yang terjadi dalam kalimat.

d. Modifiers

A modifier is an adjective or adverb that “modifies” or affects other words in a sentence to make it more descriptive.

Simak contoh kalimat di bawah ini:

  • Gina baked muffins.

Now, let’s add modifiers:

  • Gina lovingly baked fresh blueberry muffins.

Modifiers membantu memberikan ide yang lebih jelas tentang hal-hal dalam kalimat.

We now know that Gina cares about her baking (lovingly) and that the muffins were blueberry and made fresh.


4. Types of Absolute Phrases

Seperti disebutkan, sebagian besar absolute phrase menggunakan kata benda/ Noun dan baik di masa lalu/ Past atau saat ini/ Present. Tapi, seperti banyak kasus lain dalam tata bahasa, ada pengecualian, seperti jenis frasa lain yang berfungsi seperti absolute phrase.

a. Past Participles

Past participles are different for regular and irregular verbs, but all past participle forms of regular verbs end in “ed.”Absolute phrases using a past participle follow the form Noun + past participle:

  • The batter mixed, Gina was ready to bake her muffins.
  • Muffins baked, it was time for the brunch to begin.
  • Muffins eaten, it was time for Gina to serve the fruit.
  • Fruit served and enjoyed, Gina could now rest.

Past participles menunjukkan bahwa karena sesuatu telah terjadi, sesuatu yang lain dapat terjadi. Tanpa past participle, kita tidak akan tahu detail lain tentang klausa utama.

For example:

  • Since the batter is mixed, Gina can make muffins; since the muffins are baked, brunch can start.
b. Present Participles

As you know, a present participle form of a verb always ends in “ing.” Absolute phrases using a present participle follow the form Noun + present participle:

  • Her mixer mixing the batter, Gina could soon add blueberries.
  • Gina prepared the tables for brunch, her muffins baking in the oven.
  • Muffins cooling on the counter, they would soon be ready to eat.
  • You knew the muffins were homemade, the whole house smelling of blueberries.

Present participles menunjukkan bahwa sesuatu sedang terjadi sekarang yang mempengaruhi kalimat lengkap.

For example:

  • The muffins are cooling, so soon they can be eaten; or,
  • Gina prepares the tables, while the muffins are baking.
c. Other Phrases as Absolute Phrases

Sometimes an absolute phrase doesn’t have a participle. When it doesn’t, it can instead be a noun phrase or prepositional phrase that modifies a whole sentence.

  • Noun phrase: A wonderful baker, Gina made fresh muffins for her friends.
  • Prepositional phrase: Last night, Gina made fresh muffins for her friends.

You can see that both of the absolute phrases modify the whole sentence. “A wonderful baker” makes the fact that Gina baked muffins more important and meaningful—we know that they will be delicious. Likewise, “last night,” tells us when Gina baked the muffins.


5. How to Avoid Mistakes

An absolute phrase should not have an effect on the grammar of the sentence it modifies. Since it modifies an independent clause, which is a full sentence, if you take it away, the sentence will still make sense on its own, like this:

  • Muffins baking in the oven, Gina waited for her friends to arrive.
  • Muffins baking in the oven, Gina waited for her friends to arrive.
  • Gina waited for her friends to arrive, her muffins freshly baked and ready.
  • Gina waited for her friends to arrive, her muffins freshly baked and ready.

Jadi, kalian dapat melihat bahwa tanpa absolute phrase, contoh di atas masih merupakan kalimat yang lengkap. Tapi, absolute phrase bukan kalimat lengkap.


Tips

Here are some final important rules to help you avoid mistakes with absolute phrases:

  1. Absolute phrases modify a full sentence, not just one word.
  2. They always have a noun
  3. They usually have a participle, as well as modifiers and objects.
  4. An absolute phrase can also be a noun phrase or prepositional phrase
  5. Absolute phrases do not affect a sentence’s grammar.

Demikian penjelasan tentang Absolute phrases, semoga artikel ini bermanfaat dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris.