Present Perfect Tense: Pengertian, Penggunan, Rumus, dan Contoh Kalimat

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Present Perfect Tense: Pengertian, Penggunan, Rumus, dan Contoh Kalimat

Present Perfect Tense: Pengertian, Penggunan, Rumus, dan Contoh Kalimat


Pengertian Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense adalah suatu tense yang menggambarkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi sebelum satu spesifik waktu di masa lalu tetapi masih berlanjut sampai sekarang. Tense ini terdiri dari gabungan aspek perfect (sebelum satu spesifik waktu di masa lampau) dan bingkai waktu present (masa sekarang).

Selain itu, tense ini juga bisa menggambarkan suatu kejadian yang dimulai dan berakhir di masa lampau tetapi efeknya masih dirasakan sampai saat sekarang. Lebih singkatnya, tense ini digunakan sebagai penghubung antara masa lalu dan masa sekarang.

Penggunaan Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense digunakan untuk:

1. Tindakan atau situasi yang dimulai di masa lalu dan masih berlanjut hingga kini.
Contoh:

  • I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (dan saya masih tinggal di sana.)
  • They haven’t lived here for years.
  • She has worked in the bank for five years.
  • We have had the same car for ten years.
  • Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. Tindakan yang dilakukan selama periode waktu yang belum selesai atau berakhir.
Contoh:

  • She has been to the cinema twice this week (dan minggu ini belum berakhir.)
  • I have worked hard this week.
  • It has rained a lot this year.
  • We haven’t seen her today.

3. Tindakan berulang dalam periode yang tidak ditentukan antara masa lalu dan kini.
Contoh:

  • We have visited Portugal several times.
  • They have seen that film six times
  • It has happened several times already.
  • She has visited them frequently.
  • We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Tindakan yang baru saja selesai atau berakhir, dinyatakan dengan “just”.
Contoh:

  • I have just finished my work.
  • Have you just finished work?
  • I have just eaten.
  • We have just seen her.
  • Has he just left?

5. Tindakan di mana waktu tidaklah penting atau tidak diketahui.
Contoh:

  • He has read ‘War and Peace’. (hasil atau akibat dari tindakan membaca itu penting)
  • Someone has eaten my soup!
  • Have you seen ‘Gone with the Wind’?
  • She’s studied Japanese, Russian, and English.

6. Suatu kejadian yang telah selesai dilakukan bila tidak diikuti keterangan waktu dan waktu kejadian tersebut bukanlah hal yang penting. Jika waktu tertentu disebutkan maka digunakan simple past tense.
Contoh:

  • I have seen the movie.

7. Sesuatu yang terjadi sebelum sekarang atau kejadian yang terjadi beberapa kali dilakukan sebelum sekarang.
Contoh:

  • My uncle has ever visited England.

8. Kejadian yang terjadi di waktu lampau dan akibat dari pekerjaan itu dapat dilihat pada saat sekarang.
Contoh:

  • The girl is crying. She has lost her bag.

9. Pada kata kerja tertentu yaitu live, teach, dan work tidak ada perbedaan makna ketika since atau for digunakan.
Contoh:

  • Father has worked in this school for ten years.

Simak beberapa contoh di bawah ini:

  • He has played the guitar.
  • I have read this text many times but I’m still confused.
  • Mother has cooked our dinner.
  • She has lived here since 2008.
  • Gina: Do you like strawberry?
    Nina: I don’t know. I have never eaten it.
  • Rudolph: Will you have lunch with me?
    Jane: I’d love to, but I am full. I have had my lunch.
  • Ahmad has paid the telephone bill yet
  • I just have heard the newest story about the cinema.
  • I have made cakes. Come and try it!
  • My mother has explained about the accident twice to my father.

Rumus Present Perfect Tense

Kalimat Positif

Simak Rumus dan Contoh Kalimat di bawah ini:

1. I and my sister have visited my grandmother out of town.
2. Ana has seen her mother in the ICU room.
3. I have done my homework.
4. Father has told you about the problems.
5. Hendry has gone to the market.

Perhatikan baik-baik kata-kata yang dicetak tebal pada kalimat-kalimat di atas. Kalimat-kalimat tersebut berpola Present Perfect Tense. Present Perfect Tense digunakan ketika sesorang melakukan sesuatu dalam masa lalu dan masih dalam keadaan yang sama sampai sekarang.

Study the following pattern!

Subject + has/have + past participle (Verb.3)

Penggunaan Has untuk “He/ She/ Name of Person/ It”
Contoh:

  • He has operated PhotoShop.
  • She has operated PhotoShop.
  • Jane has operated PhotoShop.
  • It (software/PhotoShop) has run on the computer.

Penggunan Have untuk: “I/ You/ We/ They”
Contoh:

  • I have operated PhotoShop.
  • You have operated PhotoShop.
  • We have operated PhotoShop.
  • They have operated PhotoShop.

Jika kalimat di atas menggunakan (Verb-3) lalu bagaimana kalimat Present Perfect Tense yang tidak menggunakan (Verb-3) atau kalimat Nonverbal?

Simak Rumusnya di sini:

Subject + has/have + been + adjective/ noun

Contoh:

  • It has been a long way to go home.
  • He has been angry with me.
  • They have been in the garden.

Kata keterangan waktu yang digunakan:

  • for
  • since
  • recently
  • lately
  • already
  • just
  • not… yet
  • so far

Kalimat Negatif

Untuk pola kalimat negatif (-), kalian tambahkan kata “not” setelah “have/ has”

Subject + has/have + not + past participle (Verb.3)

1. I and my sister have not visited my grandmother out of town.
2. Ana has not seen her mother in the ICU room.
3. I have not done my homework.
4. Father has not told you about the problems.
5. Hendry has not gone to the market.

Kalimat Tanya

Untuk pola kalimat tanya (?)

Has/Have + Subject + past participle (Verb.3) + ?

1. Have you and your sister visited your grandmother out of town?
2. Has Ana seen her mother in the ICU room?
3. Have you done my homework?
4. Has father told you about the problems?
5. Has Hendry gone to the market?

Semoga penjelasan ini bermanfaat untuk memperdalam pemahaman kalian tentang Present Perfect Tense.

Simak Materi Listening yang menggunakan Present perfect Tense di bawah ini:

Pelajari contoh soal di bawah ini tentang Tenses: