Artikel Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang EKONOMI Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

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Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang EKONOMI Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang EKONOMI Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru
Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang EKONOMI Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

Swiss Banks – A Safe Haven for Money from Around the World

Switzerland is not only well-known for chocolate and its watch-making industry. It is also famous for its unique banking and financial system. Banks play an important role in Switzerland’s economy. Swiss banks have been considered to be the most secretive in the world for many centuries. About a third of all money held outside a person’s home country – hundreds of billions of dollars – is deposited in Swiss banks.

Banking in Switzerland goes back to the 18th century. In the past, not only rich people but also authoritarian regimes and dictators have secured their money in Swiss banks. Foreigners who live in unstable and troubled areas also tend to keep money in secure Swiss banks instead of their own. During World War II German Nazis deposited much of the country’s wealth, especially money and gold taken away from Jews, in Switzerland.

Switzerland has two large banks – UBS and Credit Suisse. Private banking also has a century-long tradition in the alpine country. Currently, about 130000 people work in the banking sector. Major banks have overseas branches that employ thousands. Switzerland’s popularity as a safe bank haven has many reasons. For one, the country has a very stable and prosperous economy, and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. It has been neutral for many centuries, especially during the two world wars. In addition, the Swiss franc is one of the most stable currencies in the world.

Swiss banks have to follow very strict privacy rules. In 1934, a law was passed that forbade Swiss banks to reveal the name of account holders. Banks protect the privacy of their clients in a way no other country in the world does. If a Swiss banker reveals anything about a person’s bank account without permission he commits a criminal act. Such regulations have made Switzerland a popular destination for foreigners who do not want to pay taxes in their own country.

Lately, however, the Swiss government has been under constant pressure by other countries to change their bank laws, making it possible to reveal the names of possible drug dealers or international criminals. EU officials claim that more and more citizens are moving their money to Switzerland to escape taxation in their home country. Income that is not reported to the government is often deposited in Swiss banks.

In the past decade, Swiss bank officials have been working together with international financial experts to combat money laundering. Under new laws, they and must report any financial transactions that look suspicious.

Daftar Kosa Kata (Vocabularies)

  • account holder = person who has money in a bank
  • act = action
  • alpine = in the Alps
  • authoritarian regime = government that is very strict to its people and does not allow them basic rights or freedom
  • billion = a hundred million
  • branch = part of a company that does work in another country
  • century = a hundred years
  • claim = to say that something is true
  • combat = fight
  • commit = do something wrong or illegal
  • considered to be = people think that …
  • currency = the money a country uses
  • currently = at the moment
  • deposit = put, place, leave
  • destination = target
  • economy = the system by which a country’s money and goods are produced and used
  • employ = give work to
  • escape = get away from
  • especially = above all
  • forbidforbade = not allow
  • foreigner = person who lives in another country
  • haven = place where you can put something in order to protect it from danger
  • however = but
  • in addition = also
  • Jew = someone, whose religion is Judaism
  • law = rules that a country passes
  • major = very important
  • money laundering = when money that is received illegally is put into businesses and banks in other countries so that it is difficult for people to find out where it came from
  • neutral = not taking part in wars or helping other countries
  • an official = person in a high position in the government or other organizations
  • overseas = countries across the ocean
  • per capita income = the money every Swiss person earns in a year
  • permission = being allowed to do something
  • popular = well-known and liked
  • popularity = something that makes a place very attractive
  • privacy = about private things
  • prosperous = wealthy, booming
  • protect = guard
  • regulations = rules
  • reveal = make known
  • secretive= private, guarded, well-defended
  • secure = to make something safe
  • strict = exact
  • suspicious = something that might be against the law
  • taxes = the money you must pay to the government for the income you get
  • transaction = here: when money is transferred from one account to another
  • troubled = with many problems
  • unique = only one of its kind; very special
  • unstable = here: areas where the political situation can change very often
  • wealth = riches, money

Terjemahan

Swiss Banks – Tempat Aman untuk Mendapatkan Uang dari Seluruh Dunia

Swiss tidak hanya terkenal dengan cokelat dan industri pembuatan arloji. Ia juga terkenal dengan sistem perbankan dan keuangannya yang unik. Bank memainkan peran penting dalam perekonomian Swiss. Bank Swiss telah dianggap sebagai yang paling rahasia di dunia selama berabad-abad. Sekitar sepertiga dari semua uang yang disimpan di luar negara asal seseorang – ratusan miliar dolar – disimpan di bank Swiss.

Bank di Swiss kembali ke abad ke-18. Di masa lalu, tidak hanya orang kaya tetapi juga rezim otoriter dan diktator telah mengamankan uang mereka di bank-bank Swiss. Orang asing yang tinggal di daerah yang tidak stabil dan bermasalah juga cenderung menyimpan uang di bank-bank Swiss yang aman alih-alih milik mereka. Selama Perang Dunia II, Nazi Jerman mendepositokan banyak kekayaan negara, terutama uang dan emas yang diambil dari orang-orang Yahudi, di Swiss.

Swiss memiliki dua bank besar – UBS dan Credit Suisse. Perbankan swasta juga memiliki tradisi selama satu abad di negara pegunungan itu. Saat ini, sekitar 1.300 orang bekerja di sektor perbankan. Bank-bank besar memiliki cabang di luar negeri yang mempekerjakan ribuan. Popularitas Swiss sebagai safe bank safe memiliki banyak alasan. Untuk satu, negara ini memiliki ekonomi yang sangat stabil dan makmur, dan salah satu pendapatan per kapita tertinggi di dunia. Sudah netral selama berabad-abad, terutama selama dua perang dunia. Selain itu, franc Swiss adalah salah satu mata uang paling stabil di dunia.

Bank-bank Swiss harus mengikuti aturan privasi yang sangat ketat. Pada tahun 1934, sebuah undang-undang disahkan yang melarang bank Swiss untuk mengungkapkan nama pemegang rekening. Bank melindungi privasi klien mereka dengan cara yang tidak dilakukan oleh negara lain di dunia. Jika seorang bankir Swiss mengungkapkan sesuatu tentang rekening bank seseorang tanpa izin, ia melakukan tindak pidana. Peraturan semacam itu membuat Swiss menjadi tujuan populer bagi orang asing yang tidak ingin membayar pajak di negara mereka sendiri.

Namun belakangan ini, pemerintah Swiss terus-menerus mendapat tekanan dari negara lain untuk mengubah undang-undang bank mereka, sehingga memungkinkan untuk mengungkapkan nama-nama tersebut. kemungkinan pengedar narkoba atau penjahat internasional. Para pejabat UE mengklaim bahwa semakin banyak warga negara memindahkan uang mereka ke Swiss untuk menghindari perpajakan di negara asal mereka. Penghasilan yang tidak dilaporkan kepada pemerintah sering disimpan di bank Swiss.

Dalam dekade terakhir, pejabat bank Swiss telah bekerja sama dengan pakar keuangan internasional untuk memerangi pencucian uang. Di bawah undang-undang baru, mereka dan harus melaporkan setiap transaksi keuangan yang terlihat mencurigakan.


Inflation – Causes and Effects

Older people often talk about how cheap things were when they were young. A brand new car may have cost only $5,000 compared to $20,000 today, or petrol that cost only a few cents in the 60s costs over a dollar today. Inflation happens when money loses some of its value. We measure the rise of inflation in per cent. For example, 2% inflation means that a $1 bottle of milk will cost $1.02 next year.

Causes of Inflation

Inflation has many causes. In times when the economy is good and people have enough money, they want to buy more products than factories can produce, so the prices go up.

Inflation can also happen when workers demand more money or when the raw materials that producers need to rise in price. The end product becomes more expensive and has to be sold at a higher price.

Some economists say that central banks do not do enough to control how much money there is in a country. There may be more money around than there are goods. Consumers want to buy more products, the demand gets higher and prices go up. Sometimes low-interest rates on loans make people borrow money to buy houses or cars. These prices go up as well.

Inflation is not produced by one country alone. Sometimes a country cannot control the prices of certain goods as it would like to. A country that does not have any energy supplies of its own has to import energy. It has to pay a high price for oil and gas.

Inflation in the past happened in times of crisis, war or conflict. Governments printed too much money and didn’t have the goods that people could buy. This happened in the final years of World War II. By the end of the war, the German currency was not even worth the paper on which it was printed.

Effects of inflation

Inflation is a sign that the economy is growing. It is normal when prices go up only a few percents every year. High inflation, on the other hand, leads to uncertainty in the population.

Industries may not want to borrow money and invest when inflation is high. People don’t want to buy goods anymore. Factories may get stuck with products they cannot sell and as a result workers get unemployed.

It is very difficult to fight inflation. Banks can control interest rates and make it difficult for people to get loans and have more money. Governments have an effect on inflation when they raise or lower taxes. They can also try to control wages and prices as far as possible.

Daftar Kosa Kata (Vocabularies)

  • brand = very
  • cause = reason
  • central bank = a bank that controls how much money there is in a country; it also lends money to other banks
  • compare = to see how different or the same two things are
  • currency = the type of money a country has
  • demand = want
  • economy =the system of money and products in a country
  • effect = the changes that happen
  • energy supply = forms of energy that a country needs for its economy, like oil, coal, wood etc..
  • goods = products
  • interest rate = the percentage that you have to pay to banks when you borrow money from them or the percentage that you get when you have money in the bank
  • loan = the money that you borrow from a bank
  • measure = calculate
  • raise = move up, higher
  • raw materials = basic things that industries need like oil, gas, coal etc..
  • rise = go up
  • sign = signal
  • stuck = here: they cannot sell products
  • uncertainty = you are not sure about things

Terjemahan

Inflasi – Penyebab dan Efek

Orang-orang yang lebih tua sering berbicara tentang betapa murahnya hal-hal ketika mereka masih muda. Sebuah mobil baru mungkin berharga hanya $ 5.000 dibandingkan dengan $ 20.000 hari ini, atau bensin yang harganya hanya beberapa sen di tahun 60an harganya lebih mahal dari satu dolar hari ini. Inflasi terjadi ketika uang kehilangan sebagian nilainya. Kami mengukur kenaikan inflasi dalam per sen. Sebagai contoh, inflasi 2% berarti bahwa $ 1 botol susu akan berharga $ 1,02 tahun depan.

Penyebab InflasiInflasi

InflasiInflasi memiliki banyak penyebab. Di saat ekonomi sedang bagus dan orang punya cukup uang, mereka ingin membeli lebih banyak produk daripada yang bisa dihasilkan pabrik, sehingga harganya naik.

Inflasi juga bisa terjadi ketika pekerja meminta lebih banyak uang atau ketika bahan baku yang dibutuhkan produsen untuk naik harga. Produk akhirnya menjadi lebih mahal dan harus dijual dengan harga lebih tinggi.

Beberapa ekonom mengatakan bahwa bank sentral tidak cukup melakukan untuk mengendalikan berapa banyak uang yang ada di suatu negara. Mungkin ada lebih banyak uang daripada barang. Konsumen ingin membeli lebih banyak produk, permintaan semakin tinggi dan harga naik. Terkadang suku bunga rendah pinjaman membuat orang meminjam uang untuk membeli rumah atau mobil. Harga-harga ini juga naik.

Inflasi tidak diproduksi oleh satu negara saja. Terkadang suatu negara tidak dapat mengendalikan harga barang-barang tertentu seperti yang diinginkannya. Negara yang tidak memiliki persediaan energi sendiri harus mengimpor energi. Itu harus membayar harga tinggi untuk minyak dan gas.

Inflasi di masa lalu terjadi pada masa krisis, perang atau konflik. Pemerintah mencetak terlalu banyak uang dan tidak memiliki barang yang bisa dibeli orang. Ini terjadi pada tahun-tahun terakhir Perang Dunia II. Pada akhir perang, mata uang Jerman bahkan tidak sebanding dengan kertas yang dicetak.

Pengaruh inflasi

Inflasi adalah tanda bahwa ekonomi sedang tumbuh. Itu normal ketika harga naik hanya beberapa persen setiap tahun. Inflasi tinggi, di sisi lain, mengarah pada ketidakpastian dalam populasi. Industri mungkin tidak ingin meminjam uang dan berinvestasi ketika inflasi tinggi. Orang tidak ingin membeli barang lagi.

Pabrik mungkin terjebak dengan produk yang tidak bisa mereka jual dan akibatnya para pekerja menjadi pengangguran.

Sangat sulit untuk melawan inflasi. Bank dapat mengendalikan suku bunga dan menyulitkan orang untuk mendapatkan pinjaman dan memiliki lebih banyak uang. Pemerintah memiliki efek pada inflasi ketika mereka menaikkan atau menurunkan pajak. Mereka juga dapat mencoba mengendalikan upah dan harga sejauh mungkin.


Global Economic Crisis

In 2008 a great economic crisis led to a recession of the economies around the world. What began as a credit crisis turned out to be the biggest banking crisis since the Great Depression. Although the implications of the crisis are most severe in the USA, banks and insurance companies all over the world have collapsed and governments have come to the rescue by lending them money.

The American government wants to save the global financial system with 700 b dollars. With this money, it wants to restore trust in America’s banking system.

Causes of the crisis

There are many reasons for the current crisis.

Governments, especially the American government, did not control the banking sector enough and let the banks give loans to people without asking for securities. Many companies, banks, and firms have become too greedy and wanted to make a lot of quick money. Since the 1970s too many goods and services have been produced.

Background

The Post-war Period 1945 – 1975

After World War II economies around the world grew very quickly. Europe and Japan were being rebuilt. Workers received higher wages. This period of growth came to an end in the mid-1970s. Developing nations like Brazil or the tiger states of Asia (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong) started producing more and more, which led to overproduction. In the industrial countries, consumers were not able to buy as much as they did before because prices and inflation went up. On top of all this, a dramatic energy crisis and the rise in oil prices led to a worldwide recession in the mid and late 1970s.

Globalization

At the beginning of the 1980s companies and firms in industrialized nations began looking for new ways of making more money. They started transferring their companies to Asia where they hired cheaper workers and had access to less expensive raw materials. Because of low labor costs they could produce more cheaply and make more profit.

The economic bubble

In the last 15 years more and more investors and companies wanted to make larger profits. They bought real estate, stocks at high prices and sold them at even higher prices in the hope of making quick money. When prices got too high nobody bought stocks and real estate anymore. Prices fell and as time went on they became worthless.

Such an economic bubble burst in Asia between 1997 and 1998. It led to the economic collapse of some countries, including Japan. Within a few weeks, stock market prices fell and nobody bought stock or real estate anymore. Foreign investors pulled out their money out of Asia.

Terjemahan

Krisis Ekonomi Global

Krisis Ekonomi Global Pada tahun 2008 krisis ekonomi yang hebat menyebabkan resesi ekonomi di seluruh dunia. Apa yang bermula sebagai krisis kredit ternyata merupakan krisis perbankan terbesar sejak Depresi Hebat. Meskipun implikasi krisis paling parah di AS, bank dan perusahaan asuransi di seluruh dunia telah runtuh dan pemerintah telah menyelamatkan dengan meminjamkan mereka uang. Pemerintah Amerika ingin menyelamatkan sistem keuangan global dengan 700 miliar dolar. Dengan uang ini, ia ingin mengembalikan kepercayaan pada sistem perbankan Amerika.

Penyebab krisis

Ada banyak alasan untuk krisis saat ini.

Pemerintah, terutama pemerintah Amerika, tidak cukup mengendalikan sektor perbankan dan membiarkan bank memberikan pinjaman kepada orang tanpa meminta untuk sekuritas. Banyak perusahaan, bank, dan perusahaan menjadi terlalu serakah dan ingin menghasilkan banyak uang cepat. Sejak tahun 1970-an terlalu banyak barang dan jasa telah diproduksi.

Latar Belakang

Masa Pasca Perang 1945 – 1975

Setelah Perang Dunia II, perekonomian di seluruh dunia tumbuh dengan sangat cepat. Eropa dan Jepang sedang dibangun kembali. Pekerja menerima upah lebih tinggi. Periode pertumbuhan ini berakhir pada pertengahan 1970-an. Negara-negara berkembang seperti Brasil atau negara-negara macan Asia (Taiwan, Korea Selatan, Singapura, dan Hong Kong) mulai memproduksi lebih banyak dan lebih banyak lagi, yang menyebabkan produksi berlebih. Di negara-negara industri, konsumen tidak dapat membeli sebanyak yang mereka lakukan sebelumnya karena harga dan inflasi naik. Di atas semua ini, krisis energi yang dramatis dan kenaikan harga minyak menyebabkan resesi di seluruh dunia pada pertengahan dan akhir 1970-an.

Globalisasi

Pada awal 1980-an perusahaan dan perusahaan di negara-negara industri mulai mencari cara baru untuk menghasilkan lebih banyak uang. Mereka mulai memindahkan perusahaan mereka ke Asia di mana mereka mempekerjakan pekerja yang lebih murah dan memiliki akses ke bahan baku yang lebih murah. Karena biaya tenaga kerja yang rendah, mereka dapat menghasilkan lebih murah dan menghasilkan lebih banyak keuntungan.

Gelembung ekonomi

Dalam 15 tahun terakhir semakin banyak investor dan perusahaan ingin menghasilkan laba yang lebih besar. Mereka membeli real estat, saham dengan harga tinggi dan menjualnya dengan harga lebih tinggi dengan harapan menghasilkan uang cepat. Ketika harga menjadi terlalu tinggi, tidak ada yang membeli saham dan real estat lagi. Harga jatuh dan seiring berjalannya waktu mereka menjadi tidak berharga.

Seperti gelembung ekonomi meledak di Asia antara 1997 dan 1998. Itu menyebabkan keruntuhan ekonomi beberapa negara, termasuk Jepang. Dalam beberapa minggu, harga pasar saham turun dan tidak ada yang membeli saham atau real estat lagi. Investor asing mengeluarkan uang mereka dari Asia.

Demikian Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Ekonomi Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru.

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