Artikel Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Fenomena Alam “AURORA” Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

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Dear Readers,

Banyak sekali fenomena alam yang terjadi di sekitar kita. Fenomena alam adalah peristiwa non-artifisial dalam pandangan fisika, dan kemudian tak diciptakan oleh manusia, meskipun dapat memengaruhi manusia (bakteri, penuaan, bencana alam). Contoh umum dari fenomena alam termasuk letusan gunung berapi, cuaca, dan pembusukan.

Sebagian besar fenomena alam tak berbahaya seperti hujan. Fenomena alam seperti letusan gunung berapi, tsunami dan tornado dianggap berbahaya dan dapat menimbulkan kematian. Fenomena adalah hal yang luar biasa dalam kehidupan di dunia dan dapat terjadi dengan tidak terduga dan tampak mustahil dalam pandangan manusia.

PustakaBahasaInggris.com – Artikel hari ini berisi informasi tentang Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Fenomena Alam “AURORA” Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru.

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Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Fenomena Alam "AURORA" Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Fenomena Alam “AURORA” Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru


AURORA

An aurora is a natural light display that shimmers in the sky. Colorful blue, red, yellow, green, and orange lights shift gently and change shape like softly blowing curtains. Auroras are only visible at night, and usually, only appear in lower polar regions.

Auroras are visible almost every night near the Arctic and Antarctic Circles, which are about 66.5 degrees north and south of the Equator. In the north, the display is called aurora borealis, or northern lights. In the south, it is called aurora australis, or southern lights.

Auroras and the Solar Wind

The activity that creates auroras begins on the sun. The sun is a ball of superhot gases made up of electrically charged particles called ions. The ions, which continuously stream from the sun’s surface, are called the solar wind.

As solar wind approaches the Earth, it meets the Earth’s magnetic field. Without this magnetic field protecting the planet, the solar wind would blow away Earth’s fragile atmosphere, preventing all life. Most of the solar wind is blocked by the magnetosphere, and the ions, forced around the planet, continue to travel farther into the solar system.

Although most of the solar wind is blocked by the magnetosphere, some of the ions become briefly trapped in ring-shaped holding areas around the planet. These areas, in a region of the atmosphere called the ionosphere, are centered around the Earth’s geomagnetic poles. The geomagnetic poles mark the tilted axis of the Earth’s magnetic field. They lie about 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) from the geographic poles but are slowly moving.

In the ionosphere, the ions of the solar wind collide with atoms of oxygen and nitrogen from the Earth’s atmosphere. The energy released during these collisions causes a colorful glowing halo around the poles—an aurora. Most auroras happen about 97-1,000 kilometers (60-620 miles) above the Earth’s surface.

The most active auroras happen when the solar wind is the strongest. The solar wind is usually fairly constant, but solar weather—the heating and cooling of different parts of the sun—can change daily.

Solar weather is often measured in sunspots. Sunspots are the coldest part of the sun and appear as dark blobs on its white-hot surface. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are associated with sunspots. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are sudden, extra bursts of energy in the solar wind. Sunspot activity is tracked over an 11-year cycle. Bright, consistent auroras are most visible during the height of sunspot activity.

Some increased activity in the solar wind happens during every equinox. These regular fluctuations are known as magnetic storms. Magnetic storms can lead to auroras being seen in the mid-latitudes during the time around the spring and autumnal equinoxes. Auroras have been visible as far south as the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico.

Magnetic storms and active auroras can sometimes interfere with communications. They can disrupt radio and radar signals. Intense magnetic storms can even disable communication satellites.

Coloring an Aurora

The colors of the aurora vary, depending on altitude and the kind of atoms involved. If ions strike oxygen atoms high in the atmosphere, the interaction produces a red glow. This is an unusual aurora—the most familiar display, a green-yellow hue, occurs as ions strike oxygen at lower altitudes. Reddish and bluish light that often appears in the lower fringes of auroras is produced by ions striking atoms of nitrogen. Ions striking hydrogen and helium atoms can produce blue and purple auroras, although our eyes can rarely detect this part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

To find out more about the mysterious light displays, scientists have launched satellites specially designed to study auroras. Until 2005, NASA’s IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite used ultraviolet and radio waves to study auroras and how they are formed.

sourced by National Geographic


Daftar Kosa Kata (Vocabularies)

  • Altitude (Noun): the distance above sea level.
  • Antarctic Circle (Noun): line of latitude at 66.5 degrees south that encircles the continent of Antarctica.
  • Atmosphere (Noun): layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body.
  • Atom (Noun): the basic unit of an element, composed of three major parts: electrons, protons, and neutrons.
  • Aurora (Noun): brightly colored bands of light, visible around Earth’s geomagnetic poles, caused by solar wind interacting with particles in Earth’s magnetic field.
  • Aurora Australis (Noun): bright bands of color around the South Pole caused by solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field. Also called the southern lights.
  • Aurora Borealis (Noun): bright bands of color around the North Pole caused by solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field. Also called the northern lights.
  • Autumnal Equinox (Noun): autumn day, usually around September 22, when day and night are of generally equal length.
  • Axis (Noun): an invisible line around which an object spins.
  • Charged Particle (Noun): a molecule that has a positive or negative electric charge.
  • Collide (Verb): to crash into.
  • Coronal Mass Ejection (Noun): a huge burst of solar wind and other charged particles.
  • Disrupt (Verb): to interrupt.
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum (Noun): a continuous band of all kinds of radiation (heat and light).
  • Equator (Noun): an imaginary line around the Earth, another planet, or star running east-west, 0 degrees latitude.
  • Equinox (Noun): a period in which daylight and darkness are nearly equal. There are two equinoxes a year.
  • Fluctuate (Verb): to constantly change back and forth.
  • Fragile (Noun): delicate or easily broken.
  • Gas (Noun): state of matter with no fixed shape that will fill any container uniformly. Gas molecules are in constant, random motion.
  • Geomagnetic Pole (Noun): point marking the tilted north and south axes of Earth’s magnetic field, about 1,300 kilometers (800 miles) from the geographic poles.
  • IMAGE (Noun): (2000-2005) (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) NASA satellite used to study the auroras and magnetosphere.
  • Interfere (Verb): to meddle or prevent a process from reaching completion.
  • Ion (Noun): electrically charged atom or group of atoms, formed by the atom having gained or lost an electron.
  • Ionosphere (Noun): an outer layer of the Earth’s atmosphere, 80-400 kilometers (50-250 miles) above the surface.
  • Magnetic Field (Noun): an area around and affected by a magnet or charged particle.
  • Magnetic Storm (Noun): interaction between the Earth’s atmosphere and charged particles from the solar wind.
  • Magnetosphere (Noun): teardrop-shaped area, with the flat area facing the sun, around the Earth controlled by the Earth’s magnetic field.
  • Midlatitude (Noun): area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the north, and between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the south. Also called a temperate zone.
  • NASA (Noun): (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) the U.S. space agency, whose mission statement is “To reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind.”
  • Nitrogen (Noun): chemical element with the symbol N, whose gas form is 78% of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Northern Lights (Noun): also known as the aurora borealis. The bright bands of color around the North Pole caused by the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field.
  • Oxygen (Noun): chemical element with the symbol O, whose gas form is 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Polar (Adjective): having to do with the North and/or the South Pole.
  • Pole (Noun): extreme north or south point of the Earth’s axis.
  • Radar (Noun): (RAdio Detection And Ranging) method of determining the presence and location of an object using radio waves.
  • Radio Wave (Noun): electromagnetic wave with a wavelength between 1 millimeter and 30,000 meters, or a frequency between 10 kilohertz and 300,000 megahertz.
  • Satellite (Noun): an object that orbits around something else. Satellites can be natural, like moons, or made by people.
  • Solar Flare (Noun): an explosion in the sun’s atmosphere, which releases a burst of energy and charged particles into the solar system.
  • Solar System (Noun): the sun and the planets, asteroids, comets, and other bodies that orbit around it.
  • Solar Wind (Noun): a flow of charged particles, mainly protons, and electrons, from the sun to the edge of the solar system.
  • Southern Lights (Noun): the bright bands of color around the South Pole caused by the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field. Also known as the aurora australis.
  • Sun (Noun): star at the center of our solar system.
  • Sunspot (Noun): dark, cooler area on the surface of the sun that can move, change and disappear over time.
  • Ultraviolet (Adjective): having to do with the light of short wavelengths, invisible to the human eye.


Terjemahan

AURORA

Aurora adalah tampilan cahaya alami yang berkilau di langit. Lampu warna-warni biru, merah, kuning, hijau, dan oranye bergeser dengan lembut dan berubah bentuk seperti gorden yang lembut. Aura hanya terlihat di malam hari, dan biasanya, hanya muncul di daerah kutub bawah.

Aurora terlihat hampir setiap malam di dekat Lingkaran Kutub Utara dan Antartika, yaitu sekitar 66,5 derajat utara dan selatan Khatulistiwa. Di utara, tampilan ini disebut aurora borealis, atau lampu utara. Di selatan, itu disebut aurora australis, atau lampu selatan.

Auroras dan Angin Matahari

Aktivitas yang menciptakan aurora dimulai di bawah sinar matahari. Matahari adalah bola gas super yang terdiri dari partikel bermuatan listrik yang disebut ion. Ion-ion, yang terus menerus mengalir dari permukaan matahari, disebut angin matahari.

Saat angin matahari mendekati Bumi, ia memenuhi medan magnet Bumi. Tanpa medan magnet ini yang melindungi planet ini, angin matahari akan menerbangkan atmosfer rapuh Bumi, mencegah semua kehidupan. Sebagian besar angin matahari terhalang oleh magnetosfer, dan ion-ion, yang dipaksa mengelilingi planet ini, terus bergerak lebih jauh ke tata surya.

Meskipun sebagian besar angin matahari terhalang oleh magnetosfer, beberapa ion menjadi terperangkap sebentar di daerah penampungan berbentuk cincin di sekitar planet ini. Daerah-daerah ini, di wilayah atmosfer yang disebut ionosfer, berpusat di sekitar kutub geomagnetik Bumi. Kutub geomagnetik menandai sumbu kemiringan medan magnet Bumi. Mereka terletak sekitar 1.300 kilometer (800 mil) dari kutub geografis tetapi perlahan-lahan bergerak.

Di ionosfer, ion-ion angin matahari bertabrakan dengan atom-atom oksigen dan nitrogen dari atmosfer bumi. Energi yang dilepaskan selama tabrakan ini menyebabkan lingkaran cahaya berwarna-warni di sekitar kutub — aurora. Sebagian besar aurora terjadi sekitar 97-1.000 kilometer (60-620 mil) di atas permukaan bumi.

Aurora yang paling aktif terjadi ketika angin matahari adalah yang terkuat. Angin matahari biasanya cukup konstan, tetapi cuaca matahari – pemanasan dan pendinginan berbagai bagian matahari – dapat berubah setiap hari.

Cuaca matahari sering diukur dalam bintik matahari. Bintik matahari adalah bagian terdingin dari matahari dan muncul sebagai gumpalan gelap di permukaan putih-panasnya. Suar matahari dan ejeksi massa koronal berhubungan dengan bintik matahari. Suar matahari dan ejeksi massa koron tiba-tiba, ledakan energi ekstra dalam angin matahari. Aktivitas Sunspot dilacak selama siklus 11 tahun. Aurora cerah dan konsisten paling terlihat selama puncak aktivitas bintik matahari.

Beberapa peningkatan aktivitas dalam angin matahari terjadi selama setiap ekuinoks. Fluktuasi yang teratur ini dikenal sebagai badai magnetik. Badai magnetik dapat menyebabkan aurora terlihat di pertengahan garis lintang selama waktu sekitar musim semi dan ekuinoks musim gugur. Aura telah terlihat sejauh selatan seperti Semenanjung Yucatan di Meksiko.

Badai magnetik dan aurora aktif terkadang dapat mengganggu komunikasi. Mereka dapat mengganggu sinyal radio dan radar. Badai magnetik yang intens bahkan dapat menonaktifkan satelit komunikasi.

Warna Aurora

Warna aurora bervariasi, tergantung pada ketinggian dan jenis atom yang terlibat. Jika ion menyerang atom oksigen tinggi di atmosfer, interaksi menghasilkan sinar merah. Ini adalah aurora yang tidak biasa — tampilan yang paling dikenal, rona hijau-kuning, muncul ketika ion-ion menyerang oksigen pada ketinggian lebih rendah. Cahaya kemerahan dan kebiru-biruan yang sering muncul di pinggiran aurora yang lebih rendah dihasilkan oleh ion-ion yang menyerang atom nitrogen. Ion hidrogen dan helium yang menyerang atom dapat menghasilkan aurora biru dan ungu, meskipun mata kita jarang dapat mendeteksi bagian spektrum elektromagnetik ini.

Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang tampilan cahaya misterius, para ilmuwan telah meluncurkan satelit yang dirancang khusus untuk mempelajari aurora. Hingga tahun 2005, satelit NASA IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global) menggunakan gelombang ultraviolet dan radio untuk mempelajari aurora dan bagaimana mereka terbentuk.

Demikian Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang Fenomena Alam “AURORA” Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru.

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