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Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang SEJARAH Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang SEJARAH Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru


The Cold War

The Cold War was the time of rivalry and conflict between the USA and the Soviet Union. It started at the end of World War II and ended with the collapse of communism at the end of the 1980s. It was a time of political tension, in which both superpowers tried to prevent each other from gaining too much power. Even if the conflict did not result in a real war, there were many situations in which the world was very close to it.

After World War II

Although the United States and the Soviet Union were allies during World War II, they had different ideas about the future of the world. At the end of the war, the Soviets controlled much of Eastern Europe and installed Communist governments there. The United States, on the other side, wanted to stop Communist ideas from spreading. It helped Western European countries to stay free and also gave them big sums of money to help rebuild their weak economies. The border between the Communist east and the free west was called the Iron Curtain and ran straight through the middle of Europe.

Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang SEJARAH Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

The Iron Curtain
blue = NATO countries
red = Warsaw Pact Countries
green = bloc-free
Grey = neutral

Military Blocs after World War II

After World War II two military organizations emerged. In 1949 the United States and other western countries founded NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), on the other side the Soviets led the Warsaw Pact, a military organization of eastern European countries. Both military blocs wanted to defend themselves in case the other attacked.

Berlin

Two of the major events of the Cold War took place in Berlin. After World War II the city was divided into four zones. The French, British and American zone became West Berlin and the Soviet zone became East Berlin. When the Soviets tried to cut off supply routes to the city the Americans reacted by airlifting food, clothes and other supplies to Berlin to help the city survive.

In the 1950s many East Berliners moved to West Berlin to escape Communism. The East German government had no way of stopping them. During this decade thousands of people crossed the border to freedom. In 1961 the East German government erected a wall around Berlin. It became the most famous symbol of the Cold War.

Cuba

Another political and military showdown took place in Cuba. In 1959 rebel leader Fidel Castro overthrew western leaders and installed a Communist government on the island. Soon, the Soviet Union sent supplies and weapons to support Cuba.
In 1962 the Soviet Union set up nuclear missiles on the island. To the Americans, nuclear missiles 90 miles from the coast of Florida was an unacceptable threat to their safety. After days of conflict and tension, the Soviets finally agreed to remove their weapons from Cuba.

Other Cold War events

The Cold War spread to other parts of the world as well. The Soviet Union tried to expand their influence to Asian countries. Mao Zedong became the first communist leader in China in 1949. The Chinese nationalists were driven off the mainland to Taiwan. In the years that followed, however, China challenged the Soviet leadership in the Communist world.

After World War II the Soviets occupied the northern part of Korea and set up a Communist government there. When North Korean forces invaded the south in the 1950s, the United States led allied forces against the Communist north. After three years of fighting the Korean War came to an end. The peninsula was divided into North and South Korea.

Later in that decade, the Soviets spread their influence to Indochina. After the French had been thrown out of Vietnam in the 1950s the country was divided into a Communist north and free south. North Vietnam, however, wanted to unite Vietnam under Communist rule. Soon the Americans got involved in the war on the side of the South Vietnamese. After a decade of fighting the Americans and South Vietnamese were defeated and the Communists reunited the country. In 1979 the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in an attempt to stop Islamic influence from spreading to their southern borders.

Teks Bahasa Inggris Tentang SEJARAH Lengkap Dengan Terjemahan dan Daftar Kosakata Baru

Arms and Space Race

Four years after the atomic bomb had been dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb and became a nuclear power. During the decades of the Cold War, both countries increased their nuclear stockpiles. They developed intercontinental missiles which could reach all corners of the world in a short time. During the 1970s each country had enough nuclear weapons to wipe out all life on earth. Later on, they agreed to stop the arms race and set a limit to the number of weapons each country had.

The Soviet Union and the USA extended their rivalry in what became known as the space race. Both superpowers wanted to demonstrate their technological superiority. In 1957, the Soviets launched the first satellite into space and in 1961 Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the earth. The space race ended in 1969 when Apollo 11 landed on the moon.

End of the Cold War

The latter half of the 1980s slowly brought an end to the Cold War. In the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev took power. He wanted to open up the economy of the largest country on earth. His policy of glasnost and perestroika aimed at giving the Soviet population more freedom and rights.

In 1989 Communism started to collapse in many parts of Eastern Europe. In November 1989 the Berlin Wall was torn down and East Germans were allowed to travel freely to the West. In 1991 the Soviet Union ceased to exist and broke up into 15 independent countries. Communism survived in only a few countries, including Cuba.

Daftar Kosa Kata (Vocabularies)

  • agree = to say yes
  • aim = have the goal of, try to do something
  • airlift = bring food, clothes and medicine to a place with aeroplanes
  • allies = country that agrees to help another country during a war or conflict
  • although = while
  • attempt = try
  • bloc = group of countries that work together and have the same ideas
  • border = line between two areas
  • cease = stop
  • challenge = here: not accept, fight against
  • coast = where land meets the sea
  • collapse = breakdown
  • cut off = to stop something from reaching a place
  • decade = a period of ten years
  • defeat = win against someone
  • demonstrate = show
  • divide = split up
  • an economy = system by which a country’s money and goods are produced and used
  • emerge = come up, appear
  • erect = construct, build
  • escape = get away from
  • expand = make larger
  • extend = spread out
  • forces = army, soldiers
  • found- founded = create, start something new
  • freedom = liberty, being free
  • gain = get
  • get involved = take part in
  • government = the people who rule a country
  • however = but
  • human = person
  • in case = if
  • including = also
  • independent = free
  • Indochina = south-eastern part of Asia
  • influence = power
  • install = set up
  • intercontinental = from one continent to another
  • invade = enter a place with an army
  • latter = second
  • launch = start
  • limit = maximum
  • mainland = on the continent, not the islands around it
  • major = very important
  • nationalist = someone who wants their country to stay free
  • nuclear missile = weapon that has an atomic bomb on board and can fly over long distances and explode when it gets there
  • nuclear power = country that has atomic weapons
  • occupy = enter a place with an army and keep control of it for a longer time
  • orbit = go around in a circle
  • overthrow = defeat; remove a leader or government from power
  • peninsula = piece of land surrounded by water on three sides
  • prevent = stop
  • remove = get rid of, take out
  • result in = lead to, end in
  • rights = the things you are normally and legally allowed to do
  • rivalry = conflict, here: a situation in which two countries are against each other for a longer period of time
  • rule = power, government
  • safety = security, well-being
  • showdown = fight, conflict
  • stockpile = here: a large supply of weapons that you can use later on if you need them
  • sum = amount
  • superiority = power, a situation in which you are the best
  • supplies = necessary things that people need for daily life, like food, clothes, medicine
  • supply routes = roads and railway lines that are used to bring food, clothes and other things to people
  • support = help
  • survive = live on in a dangerous situation
  • tear down = destroy
  • tension = conflict, worry; a feeling in which you do not trust the other side
  • threat = danger
  • unacceptable = something that cannot be allowed
  • unite = join together
  • weak = not strong
  • weapon = something that you use in a war to fight against or attack your enemy
  • wipe out = destroy

Terjemahan


Perang Dingin

Perang Dingin adalah masa persaingan dan konflik antara AS dan Uni Soviet. Itu dimulai pada akhir Perang Dunia II dan berakhir dengan runtuhnya komunisme pada akhir 1980-an. Itu adalah masa ketegangan politik, di mana kedua negara adikuasa berusaha mencegah satu sama lain untuk mendapatkan kekuasaan terlalu banyak. Sekalipun konflik tidak menghasilkan perang yang sesungguhnya, ada banyak situasi di mana dunia sangat dekat dengannya.

Setelah Perang Dunia II

Meskipun Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet adalah sekutu selama Perang Dunia II, mereka memiliki gagasan berbeda tentang masa depan dunia. Pada akhir perang, Soviet menguasai sebagian besar Eropa Timur dan membentuk pemerintahan Komunis di sana. Amerika Serikat, di sisi lain, ingin menghentikan penyebaran ide-ide Komunis. Ini membantu negara-negara Eropa Barat untuk tetap bebas dan juga memberi mereka sejumlah besar uang untuk membantu membangun kembali ekonomi mereka yang lemah. Perbatasan antara timur Komunis dan barat bebas disebut Tirai Besi dan berlari lurus melalui tengah Eropa.

Blok Militer setelah Perang Dunia II

Setelah Perang Dunia II, dua organisasi militer muncul. Pada tahun 1949 Amerika Serikat dan negara-negara barat lainnya mendirikan NATO (Organisasi Perjanjian Atlantik Utara), di sisi lain Soviet memimpin Pakta Warsawa, sebuah organisasi militer negara-negara Eropa timur. Kedua blok militer itu ingin mempertahankan diri kalau-kalau yang lain menyerang.

Berlin

Dua peristiwa utama Perang Dingin terjadi di Berlin. Setelah Perang Dunia II kota ini dibagi menjadi empat zona. Zona Perancis, Inggris dan Amerika menjadi Berlin Barat dan zona Soviet menjadi Berlin Timur. Ketika Soviet berusaha memutus rute pasokan ke kota, orang Amerika bereaksi dengan menerbangkan makanan, pakaian, dan pasokan lainnya ke Berlin untuk membantu kota itu bertahan.

Pada 1950-an banyak warga Berlin Timur pindah ke Berlin Barat untuk melarikan diri dari Komunisme. Pemerintah Jerman Timur tidak memiliki cara untuk menghentikan mereka. Selama dekade ini, ribuan orang melintasi perbatasan menuju kebebasan. Pada tahun 1961 pemerintah Jerman Timur mendirikan tembok di sekitar Berlin. Itu menjadi simbol paling terkenal dari Perang Dingin.

Kuba

Pertikaian politik dan militer lainnya terjadi di Kuba. Pada tahun 1959, pemimpin pemberontak Fidel Castro menggulingkan para pemimpin barat dan membentuk pemerintahan Komunis di pulau itu. Segera, Uni Soviet mengirim pasokan dan senjata untuk mendukung Kuba.
Pada tahun 1962 Uni Soviet mendirikan rudal nuklir di pulau itu. Bagi Amerika, rudal nuklir 90 mil dari pantai Florida adalah ancaman yang tidak dapat diterima bagi keselamatan mereka. Setelah berhari-hari mengalami konflik dan ketegangan, Soviet akhirnya setuju untuk mengeluarkan senjata mereka dari Kuba.

Peristiwa Perang Dingin lainnya

Perang Dingin menyebar ke bagian lain dunia juga. Uni Soviet mencoba memperluas pengaruhnya ke negara-negara Asia. Mao Zedong menjadi pemimpin komunis pertama di Cina pada tahun 1949. Nasionalis Cina diusir dari daratan ke Taiwan. Namun, pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, Cina menantang kepemimpinan Soviet di dunia Komunis.

Setelah Perang Dunia II, Soviet menduduki bagian utara Korea dan membentuk pemerintahan Komunis di sana. Ketika pasukan Korea Utara menyerbu selatan pada 1950-an, Amerika Serikat memimpin pasukan sekutu melawan Komunis utara. Setelah tiga tahun bertempur, Perang Korea berakhir. Semenanjung itu dibagi menjadi Korea Utara dan Selatan.
Kemudian dalam dekade itu, Soviet menyebarkan pengaruhnya ke Indocina. Setelah Prancis diusir dari Vietnam pada 1950-an, negara itu dibagi menjadi Komunis utara dan selatan bebas. Vietnam Utara, bagaimanapun, ingin menyatukan Vietnam di bawah pemerintahan Komunis. Segera Amerika terlibat dalam perang di pihak Vietnam Selatan. Setelah satu dekade berperang, Amerika dan Vietnam Selatan dikalahkan dan Komunis menyatukan kembali negara itu. Pada 1979 Soviet menyerang Afghanistan dalam upaya untuk menghentikan pengaruh Islam agar tidak menyebar ke perbatasan selatan mereka.

Perlombaan Senjata dan Luar Angkasa

Empat tahun setelah bom atom dijatuhkan di atas Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, Soviet meledakkan bom atom pertama mereka dan menjadi kekuatan nuklir. Selama dekade-dekade Perang Dingin, kedua negara meningkatkan cadangan nuklir mereka. Mereka mengembangkan rudal antarbenua yang dapat menjangkau seluruh penjuru dunia dalam waktu singkat. Selama tahun 1970-an setiap negara memiliki senjata nuklir yang cukup untuk memusnahkan semua kehidupan di bumi. Kemudian, mereka sepakat untuk menghentikan perlombaan senjata dan menetapkan batas jumlah senjata yang dimiliki masing-masing negara.

Uni Soviet dan AS memperluas persaingan mereka dalam apa yang kemudian dikenal sebagai perlombaan antariksa. Kedua negara adikuasa ingin menunjukkan keunggulan teknologinya. Pada tahun 1957, Soviet meluncurkan satelit pertama ke luar angkasa dan pada tahun 1961 Yuri Gagarin menjadi manusia pertama yang mengorbit bumi. Perlombaan luar angkasa berakhir pada 1969 ketika Apollo 11 mendarat di bulan.

Akhir dari Perang Dingin

Paruh kedua tahun 1980-an secara perlahan mengakhiri Perang Dingin. Di Uni Soviet Mikhail Gorbachev mengambil alih kekuasaan. Dia ingin membuka ekonomi negara terbesar di dunia. Kebijakan glasnost dan perestroika-nya bertujuan untuk memberi rakyat Soviet lebih banyak kebebasan dan hak.

Pada tahun 1989 Komunisme mulai runtuh di banyak bagian Eropa Timur. Pada November 1989 Tembok Berlin diruntuhkan dan Jerman Timur diizinkan untuk melakukan perjalanan bebas ke Barat. Pada tahun 1991, Uni Soviet tidak ada lagi dan pecah menjadi 15 negara merdeka. Komunisme bertahan hanya di beberapa negara, termasuk Kuba.


The Berlin Wall – 20 Years Later

November 9, 2009, marks the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. It was an event that led to the collapse of Communism all over Eastern Europe.

The Berlin Wall was a barrier that separated East and West Germany and also split Berlin into two parts. At the end of World War II Germany was divided into four zones that were controlled by the Allies: Great Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union. After the war, Communist influence spread throughout Eastern Europe and in 1949 the three western powers put their zones together to form West Germany. The Soviet Union created East Germany. Although Berlin was completely inside the Soviet zone it was also divided into a democratic West Berlin and a communist East Berlin.

As years passed by West Berlin became economically richer and stronger while the people of East Berlin lived in poverty. More and more East Berliners decided to escape to the western part of the city where they hoped for a better life.

East German had to stop thousands of their own citizens from leaving the country. In 1961 the Communist Party of East Germany constructed a 150 km long wall that led through the city. In the following decades, the wall became a symbol of the Iron Curtain – the line that separated free Europe from the communist satellite states.

On November 9, 1989, the Communist government in East Germany announced that East German citizens could travel to the west without restrictions. At once thousands began to gather at the Brandenburg Gate to celebrate a historic moment. East Berliners stormed through the gate to catch their first glimpse of freedom. During the next few weeks, the wall was torn down.

Almost a year later, in October 1990 East and West Germany reunited and became one country again.

Daftar Kosa Kata (Vocabularies)

Allies = the countries that defeated Germany in World War II, above all Great Britain, France, The United States and the Soviet Union

although = while

  • anniversary = the date on which something important happened years ago
  • announce = to say officially
  • barrier = fence, wall, blockade
  • celebrate = to have fun, have a good time, to enjoy yourself
  • citizen = a person who lives in a country and has rights there
  • collapse = to break down
  • construct = build
  • decade = a period of ten years
  • divide = separate
  • escape = to get away from a dangerous place
  • form = make, create
  • freedom = liberty
  • gather = get together
  • glimpse = a quick view
  • influence = power, control
  • mark = to be a sign of
  • poverty = to be poor
  • restriction =limit
  • reunite = to come together again
  • separate = divide
  • spread = to move from one place to another

Terjemahan


Tembok Berlin – 20 Tahun Kemudian

9 November 2009, menandai ulang tahun ke 20 jatuhnya Tembok Berlin. Itu adalah peristiwa yang menyebabkan runtuhnya Komunisme di seluruh Eropa Timur.

Tembok Berlin adalah penghalang yang memisahkan Jerman Barat dan Timur dan juga membagi Berlin menjadi dua bagian. Pada akhir Perang Dunia II Jerman dibagi menjadi empat zona yang dikendalikan oleh Sekutu: Inggris Raya, Prancis, Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet. Setelah perang, pengaruh Komunis menyebar ke seluruh Eropa Timur dan pada tahun 1949 ketiga kekuatan barat menyatukan zona mereka untuk membentuk Jerman Barat. Uni Soviet menciptakan Jerman Timur. Meskipun Berlin sepenuhnya berada di dalam zona Soviet, Berlin juga terbagi menjadi Berlin Barat yang demokratis dan Berlin Timur yang komunis.

Seiring berlalunya waktu, Berlin Barat menjadi lebih kaya dan lebih kuat secara ekonomi sementara penduduk Berlin Timur hidup dalam kemiskinan. Semakin banyak warga Berlin Timur memutuskan untuk melarikan diri ke bagian barat kota tempat mereka mengharapkan kehidupan yang lebih baik.

Jerman Timur harus menghentikan ribuan warganya sendiri untuk meninggalkan negara itu. Pada tahun 1961 Partai Komunis Jerman Timur membangun tembok sepanjang 150 km yang mengarah ke kota. Dalam beberapa dekade berikutnya, tembok itu menjadi simbol Tirai Besi – garis yang memisahkan Eropa dari negara-negara satelit komunis.

Pada 9 November 1989, pemerintah Komunis di Jerman Timur mengumumkan bahwa warga Jerman Timur dapat melakukan perjalanan ke barat tanpa batasan. Seketika ribuan orang mulai berkumpul di Gerbang Brandenburg untuk merayakan momen bersejarah. Warga Berlin Timur menyerbu gerbang untuk melihat kebebasan pertama mereka. Selama beberapa minggu berikutnya, tembok itu diruntuhkan.

Hampir setahun kemudian, pada Oktober 1990 Jerman Timur dan Barat bersatu kembali dan menjadi satu negara lagi.

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